Pankration - 187° Reggimento Paracadutisti "Folgore" dell'Esercito Italiano  
PANKRATION is a World Heritage MARTIAL ART, with a unique distinction of being the only Martial Sport in existence today that can legitimately trace its roots to the Ancient Olympic Games from 648 BC to 393 AD . It is also the ONLY modern day martial sport with a recorded history spanning well back to over 3,000 years.The oldest written evidence of Pankration can be found in the 586 th lyric of Orfica in the ancient poem " Argonautica ", which researchers believe dates as far back as the 12th Millennium BC . The oldest Pankration relic is an ancient horn, found in Agia Triade Crete, depicted with pictures of ancient Pankration athletes, dating back to the 17th Century BC. In the Souidas, the Oldest Dictionary known to man, PANKRATION is defined as an unarmed combat training art and the PANKRATIASTIS is defined as one who fights with both hands and feet.
The name PANKRATION is derived from the Greek words, PAN and KRATOS , meaning ALL POWER
or "the one who has power” or “ the one who wins with total power and knowledge."
According to Plutarch, the martial art of Pankration was created by Theseus, the ancient Greek mythical warrior ,who used Pankration techniques to defeat the Minotaur (a beast that was half man and half bull). However according Pausanias, the originator of Pankration is none other than the mythological demi god Hercules. Having won in a pankration contest in Olympia, after winning on the same day the wrestling competition. He reputedly also won a pankration competition organized by the Argonauts. The Argonautics of Orfeus has him being awarded a shining and ornamented vase by Jason. Hercules is also said to have won in the first Pythian Games, held by Apollo himself at Delphi. Another tradition has it that Hercules first used pankration techniques to subdue the Nemeanlion, which is also depicted on numerous surviving Greek vases.
During the early days of the Hellenic Civilization, the Hellenes across the Agean , trained in Pankration, not only as an athletic activity but also as an effective art of warfare. [ Thermonpile, Marathon Etc ]. Pankration formed the basis for all combat training for the ancient Greek soldiers - including the famous Spartan warriors and the soldiers of Alexander’s Macedonian Phalanxes.
In 648 BC, Pankration was included as separate sporting event for Adult Males in the 33rd Ancient Olympic Games and as a Youth Male event in 200 BC in the Youth Olympic Games. Conducted over a period of THREE consecutive days and separate from the boxing and wresting events, it soon became extremely popular and continued as an ancient Olympic Sport till 393 AD. Pankration was heralded by the renowned ancient Greek philosopher Philostratos as "the most exciting and worthiest of all sports in ancient Olympia".
The world wide propagation of Pankration is attributed to Alexander the Great, who was credited to have taken Pankration with him across his conquests over Europe and Persia and finally on to India’s Indus valley.
Pankration can also be defined as the ORIGIN and Ancient Root of ALL modern day Mixed Martial Arts (MMA) contests and its ancient techniques can be easily found to be incorporated in most of the UNARMED combat techniques of modern day martial arts.
Pankration spread rapidly across the Greek cities, and onto the shores of the Mediterranean, and was referred to by various names. During the Byzantine era (circa 5th - 6th century AD), Pankration contests were called the "Pammachi" in Cyprus and “Olympia” in Antiochia. During the subsequent eras Pankration contests spread also to Western Europe where it was referred to as Clotsata ( circa 12th Century AD ), Lactes (circa 15th Century AD ) and Patso-Clotso in the 19th Century AD .
PANKRATION is a World Heritage MARTIAL ART, with a unique distinction of being the only Martial Sport in existence today that can legitimately trace its roots to the Ancient Olympic Games from 648 BC to 393 AD . It is also the ONLY modern day martial sport with a recorded history spanning well back to over 3,000 years.The oldest written evidence of Pankration can be found in the 586 th lyric of Orfica in the ancient poem " Argonautica ", which researchers believe dates as far back as the 12th Millennium BC .
The oldest Pankration relic is an ancient horn, found in Agia Triade Crete, depicted with pictures of ancient Pankration athletes, dating back to the 17th Century BC. In the Souidas, the Oldest Dictionary known to man, PANKRATION is defined as an unarmed combat training art and the PANKRATIASTIS is defined as one who fights with both hands and feet.The name PANKRATION is derived from the Greek words, PAN and KRATOS , meaning ALL POWER or "the one who has power” or “ the one who wins with total power and knowledge."
According to Plutarch, the martial art of Pankration was created by Theseus, the ancient Greek mythical warrior ,who used Pankration techniques to defeat the Minotaur (a beast that was half man and half bull). However according Pausanias, the originator of Pankration is none other than the mythological demi god Hercules. Having won in a pankration contest in Olympia, after winning on the same day the wrestling competition. He reputedly also won a pankration competition organized by the Argonauts. The Argonautics of Orfeus has him being awarded a shining and ornamented vase by Jason. Hercules is also said to have won in the first Pythian Games, held by Apollo himself at Delphi. Another tradition has it that Hercules first used pankration techniques to subdue the Nemeanlion, which is also depicted on numerous surviving Greek vases.During the early days of the Hellenic Civilization, the Hellenes across the Agean , trained in Pankration, not only as an athletic activity but also as an effective art of warfare. [ Thermonpile, Marathon Etc ]. Pankration formed the basis for all combat training for the ancient Greek soldiers - including the famous Spartan warriors and the soldiers of Alexander’s Macedonian Phalanxes.
In 648 BC, Pankration was included as separate sporting event for Adult Males in the 33rd Ancient Olympic Games and as a Youth Male event in 200 BC in the Youth Olympic Games. Conducted over a period of THREE consecutive days and separate from the boxing and wresting events, it soon became extremely popular and continued as an ancient Olympic Sport till 393 AD. Pankration was heralded by the renowned ancient Greek philosopher Philostratos as "the most exciting and worthiest of all sports in ancient Olympia".The world wide propagation of Pankration is attributed to Alexander the Great, who was credited to have taken Pankration with him across his conquests over Europe and Persia and finally on to India’s Indus valley.



In anul 2013, luna decembrie, in orasul italian Parma , a avut loc primul seminar de "Pankration", tehnici de lupta din antichitate, seminar prezentat de ASD Esercito 187°- Reggimento Paracadutisti Folgore di Livorno si organizat de revista on-line "congedatifolgore" sub atenta indrumare a instructorilor Regimentului 187°, Caporal Maggiore Capo Scelto Antonio Citi si Caporal Maggiore Capo Scelto Alessio Loni impreuna cu C.le Magg. Capo Scelto Daniele Pilagatti.
Seminarul a inceput cu un program intens de antrenament special, cu echipamente de lupta noi si de prima calitate, intr-un loc care s-a prestat perfect cerintelor unui astfel de instructaj.La sfarsitul acestui seminar tuturor paticipantilor le-au fost inmanate atestate de participare.



Un alt eveniment important a fost sarbatorirea in Livorno, a 71 de ani de la Battaglia di El Alamein la care au participat Subsecretarul de Stat al Apararii On. Giacchino Alfano si seful Statului Major al Armatei General Claudio Graziano.



La incheierea ceremoniei a avut loc un spectacol demonstrativ, de metode de lupta militare, al Brigadei Paracadutisti "Folgore", in zona "La Rotonda", in Ardenza, Italia prin care s-au pus in evidenta diferitele nivele, de forta, aplicabile de luptatori in functie de tipologia pericolului.


(Sursa "Budo International")

Pankration can also be defined as the ORIGIN and Ancient Root of ALL modern day Mixed Martial Arts (MMA) contests and its ancient techniques can be easily found to be incorporated in most of the UNARMED combat techniques of modern day martial arts.
Pankration spread rapidly across the Greek cities, and onto the shores of the Mediterranean, and was referred to by various names. During the Byzantine era (circa 5th - 6th century AD), Pankration contests were called the "Pammachi" in Cyprus and “Olympia” in Antiochia. During the subsequent eras Pankration contests spread also to Western Europe where it was referred to as Clotsata ( circa 12th Century AD ), Lactes (circa 15th Century AD ) and Patso-Clotso in the 19th Century AD .
It is regrettable that despite the historic evidence and the ancient Olympic sporting heritage , Pankration was NOT REINSTATED as a legitimate Olympic Sport, during the foundation of the Modern Day Olympic Games. This travesty is recorded in history when in 1895 the Cardinal of Lyon, voiced his official decision on the reinstatement of sports to Pierre de Coubertain, [the founder of the Modern Olympic Games] by stating “Nous acceptons tout, sauf PANKRATION” meaning “ We accept all sports to reinstated but PANKRATION” .

Adresez multumiri speciale, pentru realizarea acestui articol, instructorului C.le Magg. Capo Scelto par. Antonio Citi!
Grazie, Antonio Citi!




  |  [ 0 trackback ]   |  permalink  |   ( 4.5 / 2009 )
Pankration - 187° Reggimento Paracadutisti "Folgore" dell'Esercito Italiano 
Pankration was one of the Heavy Athletics in the classical world of ancient Greece and later throughout the Mediterranean through the spread of Roman culture.
Pankration is a combat sport descended from the Pammachon or hoplite martial arts. Pankration means "All Powers" and represented a combination of the other heavy athletics Boxing and Wrestling. All powers fighting had few rules and even transgression of the rules did not disqualify the fighter. Rather he was struck with a stick on the spot. There are various depictions of referees punishing dirty fighting. Greek wrestling in those days was similar to Brazilian Jiujitsu and other submission wrestling arts like Catch Wrestling with a big focus on submissions and choking and the ever present ground and pound.
These heavy athletics contests went on for about 1000 years with many cities specializing in different fighting styles.
Pankration is an archaic Greek word that means "total strength" and refers to a combat sport of the ancient Olympiad which was essentially an all-out fight between two contestants. Pankration allowed bare-knuckle boxing, kicking, wrestling, jointlocks, throws, and strangleholds, prohibiting only two tactics: biting and gouging out the opponent's eyes.
Even the use of the word pankration to describe the ancient Greek martial art is erroneous, since pankration was a combat sport, based on martial technique, but with a sport's limitations. However, lacking any other name to describe this archaic system of unarmed combat, the author, too, will use the term pankration in this article, with reservations and with explanations wherever possible.
We can separate pankration into two main areas of expertise: grappling and striking. Of grappling little needs to be said, except again for two specific points: ancient Greek wrestling included strangleholds and jointlocks (as did pankration). in this respect, Greek wrestling more so resembled modern judo than modern Greco-Roman wrestling. Still, most classical wrestlers controlled the opponent's upper body and used that control to institute a fall, much like today. In the case of pankration, however, a close-quarter strike or kick was always possible (even to the groin!). Pankratiastes, therefore, grappled in a much more upright and balanced stance thaStriking in pankration, on the other hand, is an area that requires careful analysis.n their wrestler counterparts. Most of the boxing done in pankration contest was long range. There was very little infighting, as almost all the contestants closed with a grappling move. In this respect, pankration strongly resembles medieval Japanese taijutsu: strike when far away, grapple when you close.
The ancient Greeks had developed a system of unarmed combat, which we will call pankration, whose style of movement was exactly the same the armored soldier could expect to use on the battlefield. In essence, sport pankration attempted to be an extension of this battlefield art, but failed to do so because of the practical limitations involved. However, the kinesiology of sport pankration per the archaeological record exactly matches that of armed and unarmed combat found during the same time period. We must assume then that sport pankration was an attempt to institute competition in the martial arts at the Olympiad, and that the historic controversy around it was a result of the problems that are always created when one tries to turn a martial art into a combat sport.Then as today a combat sport sat along side the martial art.

History Channel , Sky Italia transmite versiunea tradusa in italiana a documentarului din seria Museum Secrets. Producatorul acestei serii, in colaborare cu "Corpo Istruttori" format din C.le Magg. Capo Scelto par. Antonio Citi, C.le Magg. Capo Scelto par. Daniele Pilagatti e C.le Magg. Scelto par. Alessio Loni , care apartin Regimentului Paracadutisti "Folgore" n. 187° al Armatei Italiene , reconstruiesc lupta in stil Pankration pe arena amfiteatrului roman Volterra - Pisa.



Pangration ( Pankration ) este produsul dezvoltarii societatii grecesti din antichitate din secolul 7 i.Hr. Un sport mai dur decat boxul si luptele, Pangration ( Pankration ) a aparut ca o necesitate, fiind mai mult decat acestea la un loc, deoarece se foloseau, pe langa tehnicile de brate din box si proiectarile si fixarile din lupte, lovituri de picioare, coate si genunchi, tehnici articulare, fixari si strangulari. Din aceasta cauza Pangration ( Pankration ) era considerat „competitia totala”. Introdus la Jocurile Olimpice inca din 648 i.Hr., a fost considerat un stil de lupta dur si redutabil astfel ca putine curente martiale s-au putut compara cu el. Pangration ( Pankration ) s-a nascut in vechea Elada, intre livezile de maslini si coastele insorite ale Mediteranei. Aceasta forma de lupta s-a dezvoltat in stransa legatura cu natura, pentru a servi grecilor drept cel mai eficient mod de lupta si autoaparare. Conform mitologiei grecesti, Pangration ( Pankration ) a fost inventat de doi dintre cei mai mari eroi ai ethosului grec, Herakles si Tezeu. Cei doi erau adeptii a ceea ce se cheama Panmachia - Lupta totala / Lupta completa, in traducere directa din greaca veche. Datorita pregatirii, practicantii aveau foarte bune calitati fizice, psihice, stapaneau foarte bine tehnicile de proiectare, strangulare, chei si control articular, tehnici de lovire cu bratele si picioarele, astfel incat Pangration ( Pankration ) facea parte din arsenalul de pregatire al soldatilor greci, inclusiv al faimosilor hopliti din Sparta si a falangelor lui Alexandru Cel Mare.
Histograma Pangration AthlimaPangration ( Pankration ) a fost facut cunoscut in lume in cadrul campaniilor militare ale lui Alexandru Cel Mare, ajungand pana in Asia.



In perioada Olimpiadelor, practicanti din intreaga Grecie se intalneau pentru a se infrunta sub spiritul Mu Tau, al Adevarului Martial, caruia luptatorii ii ramaneau credinciosi intreaga viata. Acompaniati de Daskalos, denumirea profesorilor si maestrilor in Pangration ( Pankration ), tinerii luptatori se indreptau spre locurile de intrecere de la poalele Muntelui Olimp. La fata locului se aducea o urna sacra din argint in care erau puse mici placute, jumatate inscriptionate cu litera alfa, cealalta cu beta pentru tragerea la sorti. Fiecare atlet venea in fata urnei, se ruga lui Zeus si extragea o placuta. Dupa acest moment toti practicantii se strangeau intr-un cerc si strigau de trei ori numele eroului Herakles. Orice intrecere de Pangration ( Pankration ) era data in cinstea patronului spiritual al acestei arte, maretul Hercule, dupa cum l-au denumit romanii.
Pregatirea militara a grecilor si spartanilor cuprindea elementele de baza din Pangration ( Pankration ), pentru ca soldatii greci sa se poate descurca in timpul luptei daca erau pusi in situatia de a ramane fara arme.



Pangration ( Pankration ) era un univers in sine. Mai mult decat o disciplina olimpica, acest stil de lupta era pe cat de vechi pe atat de avansat in ceea ce priveste tehnica si metodologia de lupta. Era un stil complet si complex in acelasi timp, in Pangration ( Pankration ) existand o parte de pregatire speciala in care luptatorii faceau exercitii de concentrare si meditatie. Energia interna era antrenata si mai apoi dezvoltata prin exercitii respiratorii asemanatoare celor de Qi Gong din artele martiale chinezesti, denumite de grecii antici Pneuma. Existau inclusiv seturi de miscari prestabilite, asa numitele Pyrrhics sau Schiamachia, similare cu Taolu-urile din stilurile de Kung Fu si Kata din Karate.
Anticul Pangration ( Pankration ) a luat sfarsit in anul 393 e.n. cand Jocurile Olimpice sunt interzise prin lege de un edict al imparatului bizantin Theodosius I.
Din cate se cunoaste Pankration cuprindea inclusiv forme in gol numite Pyrrics si exercitii de respiratie numite Pneuma. Pankration combina atat lovituri din forme de lupta cu pumnii si picioarele numite Pygmachia cat si metode de Pale astfel ca semana oarecum cu MMA.
Forma originala a Pankration in realitate nu a supravietuit si nu a fost transmisa mai departe ca urmare a decaderii civilizatiilor grecesti si romane, ceea ce s-a pastrat fiind in parte inspirat de alte discipline practicate in zilele noastre. Cu toate astea este posibil sa urmarim o urma a Pankration-ului care a supravietuit pana in zilele noastre prin prisma altor traditii. Istoria spune ca unul din cele mai importante personaje istorice care a practicat aceasta arta a fost Alexandru Macedon care de altfel a fost si provocat de unul din soldatii sai pe nume Coragus. Pornind de la Alexandru Macedon povestea se imparte in doua directii. Prima directie se leaga de campania lui Alexandru in India, prin intermediul careia Pankration este posibil sa fi patruns in aceasta tara unde scoli cum ar fi Kalaripayit este posibil sa fie urmasesau pastratoare ale multor aspecte ale Pankration-ului antic sau o combinatie dintre Pankration si metode locale fiindca ar fi o aberatie sa presupunem ca popoarele antice ar fi trebuit sa astepte cuceritori straini pentru a da nastere la forme de lupta primitiva sau chiar mai evoluate din moment ce toate civilizatiile antice au avut parte de razboaiele lor.
Ideea este ca astfel de traditii organizate de practicare a artelor martiale in afara structurilor militare este posibil sa fie mostenite din Pankration. Mai tarziu Kalaripayit conform acestei teorii a ajuns in China via Bodhidharma si altii (avand in vedere ca in picturile "murale" de la Shaolin apar mai multi calugari cu pielea inchisa la culoare cel mai probabil de origine indiana sau persana angajati in posturi de lupta cu alti calugari) si de ce nu cele doua carti lasate de el acolo (Yi Jin Jing si Xi Sui jing) sa fi cuprins metode de Pneuma combinate cu Hatha Yoga. De altfel poate nu tocmai intamplator prima din aceste carti este considerata baza formelor de lupta de la Shaolin, ea avand istoria ei interesanta si conform traditiei era scrisa intr-o limba necunoscuta si indescifrabila abia cativa Indieni o cunosteau si nici ei bine.



In Romania World Pangration Athlima Federation este reprezentata de Sensei Cojocaru Gheorghe presedinte al Asociatiei Romana de Pangration Athlima, infiintata in septembrie 2010 prin libera asociere a 8 cluburi sportive din trei judete ( Bucuresti, Brasov si Covasna) la momentul respectiv manifestandu-si dorinta de a se alatura acestei miscari alte 6 cluburi din alte 4 judete ( Timisoara, Constanta, Cluj, Harghita ).
Cojocaru Gheoghe este ales de World Pangration Athlima Federation sa faca parte din comitetul tehnic incepand cu 2012, ocazie cu care Cojocaru Gheorghe devine Senior Instructor avand gradul 6 Pangratiatis.
Spre deosebire de box si lupte libere, a fost considerat disparut. Luptatorii greci pentru libertate ( kleftii ) foloseau astfel de tehnici de lupta in timpul inclestarilor avute cu soldatii turci.
Astfel de fratii ale kleftilor existau in orasele Constantinopol si Smyrna in cadrul carora s-a pastrat, se pare, teribilul stil al luptatorilor anticei Elade. Adevarata renastere a Pangration ( Pankration ) se datoreaza muncii si eforturilor intreprinse de Demetrios “Jim” Arvanitis, un grec care in decursul anilor ’60 a facut cunoscut Pangration ( Pankration) intregii lumi. Recunoscut drept tatal Pangrationului modern, Kirios Arvanitis este un specialist in Lupte Libere si Muay Thai, care a fost pasionat de arta stramosilor sai, incat si-a dedicat viata cercetarii si redescoperirii tuturor tehnicilor uitate din Pangration ( Pankration ).
La inceputul anilor 1990 cativa revolutionari ai curentelor de lupta pun bazele a ceea ce se numeste MMA, adica Mixed Martial Arts - Artele Martiale Combinate. Acest concept, modern la prima vedere, venea cu ideea organizarii unor lupte in care sa fie permisa proiectarea adversarului alaturi de lupta la sol. Se nasc astfel UFC, Pride, Cross training, Shoot, Ground and pound, Slam ! Nu au facut decat sa reinventeze roata … Pangration ( Pankration ) rezolvase deja aceste dileme inca de acum 2 500 ani !



Arvanitis a reintrodus Pangrationul ( Pankration ) in momentul in care intreaga lume era atrasa de artele martiale orientale de gen Karate, Aikido, Kung Fu. Cucerita de exotismul acestora, comunitatea internationala a pasionatilor de arte martiale nu a acordat Pangration ( pankration ) atentia meritata, pana in preajma anilor ’90, cand odata cu aparitia curentului Mixt Martial Arts ( MMA ), vechiul stil al grecilor atrage din ce in ce mai multi practicanti.
In 1996 s-a infiintat oficial Greek Pangration Athlima Federation ( GPAF ) cu scopul de a promova Pangration ( Pankration ) in Grecia, a urmat in aprilie 1999 infiintarea International Pankration Athlima Federation ( IFPA ), avand sediul in Lamia - Grecia. Scopul declarat al acestei federatii internationale ( peste 80 tari afiliate ) era acela de a reintroduce Pangration ( Pankration ) in Jocurile Olimpice. La 3 ani mai tarziu Hellenic Federation of Pangration Athlima ( HFPA ) cu sprijinul Guvernului Grec si a Comitetului Olimpic Grec pune bazele World Pangration Athlima Federation ( WPAF ), urmand ca in 2011 in cadrul Campionatului European de Pangration Athlima din Italia sa se decida unirea celor doua federatii ( IFPA si WPAF ) sub numele World Pangration Athlima Federation.In pragul Olimpiadei din anul 2004, grecii reusesc sa reintroduca o forma sportiva de Pangration ( Pankration ), din care au fost eliminate toate tehnicile periculoase. Ulterior, Forul International Olimpic refuza recunoasterea oficiala a Pangration ( pankration ), motivand lipsa de interes a sportivilor pentru o disciplina atat de dura. Ca o culme a birocratiei si indolentei, sportivilor participanti la editia din 2004 le sunt cerute medaliile inapoi …



In prezent fac parte din World Pangration Athlima Federation peste 50 de Federatii Nationale si Asociatii din tari precum: Japonia, SUA, Rusia, China, Corea de Sud, Australia, Mexic, Nepal, Pakistan, Africa de Sud, Israel, Italia, Bulgaria, Letonia, Romania, Spania.

The items were taken from the magazine for combat sports "Budo International."
(Gli articoli sono stati tratti dalla rivista specializzata per gli sport da combattimento "Budo International".)

Adresez multumiri speciale instructorului C.le Magg. Capo Scelto par. Antonio Citi pentru realizarea acestui articol!

Grazie, Antonio Citi!
  |  [ 0 trackback ]   |  permalink  |   ( 4.5 / 2077 )